Thursday, July 27, 2006

LEGOs and the 'happiness' debate in Singapore

The topic of 'happiness' seems to be attracting quite a lot of attention in Singapore blogosphere. In this essay I focus on the debate between those who argue that the government's role in cultivating societal happiness is restricted to economic management and those who argue that the government's role is broader than those listed above. The former group argues that people are 'diverse', and because they are diverse and want different things, the government can 'never please everybody'. Since this is the case, the reasoning goes, the next best thing to do is to simply secure the minimal conditions for happiness - that is, focus on economics, law and social order. As a response to HuiChieh's post on this topic, I presented a two-part argument comprising the following points (in his comments section):

I argued that the problem with the view that the government's role should be restricted to economic management is the following one (which I shall elaborate on over the next three paragraphs). Some citizens only wish to have a good Life, in the individualistic sense, while others wish to have a good Society. The happiness of the former group is more easily secured as long as (a) the economy is doing well, (b) infrastructures are good/surroundings are beautiful, and (c) the place is safe. For this group, there are only three 'necessary' conditions. For the latter group, there may be more, or different, 'necessary' conditions, which may or may not include (a)-(c) above. For them, perhaps the necessary condition for happiness is not (just) a good individual life, but a good society. Now, the tricky part lies here: (1) it is not that the former group discussed above does not Want to have a good Society, it's just that for them to be happy, they only need to be in a place - any place in this world - where they can make money, enjoy physical safety, and so on. And (2) they Want a good society but they do not 'will' it (as philosopher Immanuel Kant would've put it). That is, they do not want it badly enough to do what's necessary to achieve it, and instead just go about their daily lives in a rather apathetic manner. This does not mean, however, that they will not be happy if they could see their Society progress in terms of cultural and political development (e.g. 'opening up'), and they may even agree with the latter group regarding the elements of the good Society.

I believe that the latter group performs an important role in society precisely by urging people to shift their focus from the good Life to the good Society, to be less 'utilitarian' and more 'Kantian'. Dansong in his essay has gone even further, talking about the good World characterized by a global ecological sensitivity. So what exactly is good? For the first group discussed above, the good life is secured by good economic management. For the second group, the good life has 'the good Society' as a necessary condition, which means the government cannot say that they've done a good job just because the economy is doing well, for the 'society' is broader than the 'economy'. The fact that there is a coupling between Life-Society for the second group and an absence of coupling for the first group creates a fracturing in society. If the first group still forms the majority, yes, one could say that the 'majority is happy', but this would then amount to a 'tyranny of the majority', for the intensity of the Unhappiness of the minority (perhaps not even a Small minority) could be very high indeed.

My arguments presented in the three paragraphs above have been rebutted, but I shall present a counter-rebuttal here. Essentially, the objections hinge on the claim that there is indeed a vast 'diversity' of views concerning the 'good Life' and the 'good Society'. This objection appears convincing on the surface, but its convincingness is based on a vagueness that translates into an apparent accuracy of description. Both HuiChieh and The Legal Janitor felt that any society, including Singapore, will definitely be diverse enough to make their arguments stand, and that empirical research will definitely not produce evidence to challenge the diversity-argument that has been marshalled in the rebuttal. HuiChieh nonetheless presented some observations concerning the 'multicultural diversity' that characterizes Singapore, and inferred from that very multiculturalism that there is indeed 'sufficient diversity' to make his original argument stand. Thus, we are led all the way back to square one - to the suggestion that the role of the government is really just to do a good job in economic management, law and order maintenance, and minimization of risks of all kinds. Is that really true? I argue that it's not, for the following reasons:

First, the diversity-argument amounts to little more than an assumption or hypothesis, and it conflates various kinds of 'diversity'. For example, just because a country is multicultural does not mean that it cannot at the same time be 'one-dimensional'. This one-dimensionality could be characterized by a pervasive culture of consumerism, political apathy, 'kiasuism', and so on. Ethnic, religious, and nationality-based 'diversities' and other kinds of diversity may or may not be correlated with diversity regarding conceptions of the good Life and Society, and they are not effective defences against the pathological effects of one-dimensionality. But at the same time, thankfully, they are also not necessarily factors that will always make agreement concerning the good Society impossible.

Second, I present my theory of 'Life Still Goes On' in order to help me counter the rebuttals. This theory posits that for a significant number of people, cultural and political development in Society at large simply has no bearing on their happiness in their own lives (as I argued above while discussing the Life-Society coupling). As long as the economy is doing well and they are still Breathing - that is, as long as Life Still Goes On - they are not likely to be unhappy and might even be happy. The problem with HuiChieh and Legal Janitor's dismissal of the need for empirical research in specific societies in that in different societies, the number of such people varies. For the sake of further discussion, I call them 'LEGOs' (Life Endlessly/still Goes On), and they are a type that can be contrasted against 'LAGOs' (Life Actually Goes On). LAGOs are defined as people whose concern about Society (or even the World at large) causes them to be significantly affected emotionally by the state of cultural and political development in their nation. Their existence in this world is accompanied by the passionate desire to see a Good Society. Now, here's where yet another rebuttal needs to be countered. It is argued by critics that what characterises the Good Society can never be agreed on totally.

It is true that there can never be 100 percent agreement on what constitutes the good society. However, this does not mean that the main elements of such a society are equally contentious. The seemingly convincing rebuttal derives its convincingness from a strategic distraction achieved by pointing to an obvious truism, namely, that there can never be 100 percent agreement on what constitutes the good Life and good Society. Yet, the critics then forget that proponents of the original argument (e.g. myself) do wholeheartedly agree on this point. I also agree (and most people would, too) that the good Society and Life is one that is without religious, ethnic, or political conflicts of great intensity, one that is without the 'clash of civilizations' described by International Relations scholar Samuel Huntington. Why can't there be agreement on most elements of the good Life and Society? Once again, the critics (a) point to the existence of a visible diversity (of race, nationality, class, and so on), and (b) argue that this apparent diversity therefore signals an invisible 'diversity' concerning conceptions of the good Life and Society. As I have argued earlier, these are two different types of diversity; they are not the same, and the first type of diversity doesn't necessarily offer any defence against the virus of pervasive one-dimensionality of life.

How, then, do we conclude on this issue? First, I still believe that empirical studies in actual societies must have a place in the discussion, for just as the critics believe that there is 'diversity at large', there is simultaneously a 'diversity of types of societies', some of which are possibly more one-dimensional than others. Second, I believe that HuiChieh's focus on economic management ends up prioritizing only one of the three categories of factors in a proper calculus of happiness, namely, 'hygiene factors', to borrow and adapt the term of management theorist Frederick Herzberg. There is a problematic neglect of two other important factors, namely, what I'd call (a) 'happiness factors', and (b) 'disgust factors'. Hygiene factors merely ensure that people in a nation are not unhappy, but it does not make them happy. Happiness factors are required to make them happy, provided the counter-effects of disgust factors are not overly strong. Two other points need to be made: first, the temporal and developmental elements should be taken into account in trying to understand why people are happy or not. For it is not merely the state of a society that makes people happy or unhappy; it is also the perception about the speed And the direction in which that society is progressing culturally and politically that affects happiness. Second, people in a society have been treated in earlier analyses by others as discrete units of pseudo-robots (which may well be capable of experiencing a narrow range of binary or simple emotions, e.g. either happy or sad/not), but they are not treated as complex human beings who are likely to experience ambivalence (mixed feelings), self-denial, regret-mixed-with-disappointment, dilemmas (e.g. 'I want the cake and eat it too') and other more complex emotions. It is only through a recognition of the complexity of human emotions that one can begin to appreciate the seriousness of the problem of a society made up of seemingly-contented-but-not-really-satisfied people, living alongside seemingly-neutral-people-who-nonetheless-have-hopes, as well as physically-alive-but-soulless-worker-humanoids.

Relevant web-pages
(1) Harvard's Business professor Michael Porter's 'Diamond Model of Competitive Advantage of Nations'
(2) George Mason's Public Policy professor Richard Florida's observations about the 'Rise of the Creative Class'
(3) U-of-Southern California/Berkeley's Communications/Sociology/Urban Planning professor Manuel Castells's book, 'The Power of Identity'
(4) Affective Computing robot-building projects at M.I.T.'s Media Lab
(5) Film Analysis of Artificial Intelligence (A.I.)
(6) World Database of Happiness and the U.S. Misery Index (Economics approach)
(7) Psychological research on emotions at U-of-Geneva, Switzerland
(8) Funny/wise/interesting Quotes on 'Boredom' (Literary resources)


Blogger wert said...

There is a new study on the happiness level which I first see on BBC today.

The study ranked Singapore 52 out 178 countries. I think this study reflects the economic happiness level much better than the HPI.

1st - Denmark
2nd - Switzerland
3rd - Austria
4th - Iceland
10th - Canada
17th - Malaysia
23rd - USA
26th - Australia
41st - UK
52nd - Singapore
64th - Indonesia
90th - Japan
178th - Burundi

Sat Jul 29, 02:24:00 AM 2006  
Blogger Heavenly Sword said...

Thanks, Wert, for the interesting link :)

Sun Jul 30, 01:48:00 PM 2006  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Where did you find it? Interesting read » » »

Mon Mar 05, 09:48:00 PM 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Very cool design! Useful information. Go on! water bed sheet 2002-2005 ford thunderbird for sale Free fix a credit report Brunch cruise Free online flight training training stop smoking impotence medication Hair in long stays venlafaxine Luxury leather swivel chair Malaysian airlines airfares

Thu Apr 26, 11:07:00 AM 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Happiness – By Sunimal Alles

A human being has three basic aspects that define happiness: The spiritual, value for others, occupation and personal.

My studies and research since 1986 in around 16 countries indicate that between 90 to 95% of people are unhappy. Unhappiness starts at a very early age when children are prevented from doing what they really like to do by parents and teachers. The suppression of natural talents and definition of “what is best for children” at an early age prevents children from being creative at a later stage. They are generally oriented towards learning and practicing a profession or trade, which is alien to their natural talents. Once children are forced to study in domains selected by someone else, they are trapped and have to continue until they graduate. This makes them become employed in a profession where they are not creative and have to invariably continue until retirement. In their spiritual life they are forced to believe in dogmas which do not suit their thinking and are again trapped unless they decide to be free thinkers, break away and select the spiritual guidance most suited for their own spirit. One must keep in mind that every human being is different and is born with his/her own thinking pattern based on the level of evolution of the mind. If they are blocked or prevented from evolving further, it results in unhappiness.

When a human being does not value another, he/she will not be able to live peacefully and also not find the market to sell his/her products or services.

However, the manner in which they select their partners accounts for most dilemmas related to unhappiness. Most young adults when they are economically sound go about seeking partners to share their lives in an unrefined, illogical and unscientific manner. They base their selection on mainly what they feel either at the point of first encounter, astrological readings, obligations (ethnic, religious, family, childhood lovers, school mates etc) or possessiveness and rarely examine each other’s future aspirations/goals and mind evolution speed. This spells disaster after a few months or years of living together and ends up in divorce or separation. Therefore, either succumbing to circumstances, adhering to cultural and family norms and pressures or possessiveness and allowing external influences take over their lives, brings about the unhappiness or discontentment of human beings.

It is better to obtain guidance at an early age if one plans to live happily on earth. When I found out this problem, I started setting up Advisory Centers for Better Living. Contact the TIDY center at 54 Anura Mawatha, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka to analyze and obtain guidance to correct issues related to unhappiness and become free, decide on the level of happiness you would like and live meaningfully on earth. Email: Tel: 00-94-112763539

Sat May 05, 07:03:00 AM 2007  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

singaporeans can never be happy as long as they have kiasu culture. the cut-throat kind of competition which willing to betray everybody for the sake of individual survival is just putting everybody in depressive state of life.

Fri Jan 25, 12:08:00 AM 2008  
Anonymous TRAVIS VINDICH said...

“I believe the choice to be excellent begins with aligning your thoughts and words with the intention to require more from yourself.”
~~ Oprah Winfrey Yours is a nice blog.

Sat May 16, 03:14:00 PM 2009  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Do you guys watch movies in theater or on internet? I use to rent DVD movies from [b][/b]. Recently I discovered that we can watch all new movies on internet on day, they are released. So why should I spend money on renting movies??? So, can you guys please tell me where I can [url=]watch latest movie Iron Man 2 2010[/url] for free?? I have searched [url=][/url], [url=][/url], [url=][/url] but, Could not find a good working link. If you know any working link please share it with me.


Sun Apr 11, 09:43:00 AM 2010  
Anonymous Purchase Viagra said...

well is to hard to really determinate the level of happiness of the countries around the world with this old system, we need a new one.

Thu Sep 30, 11:44:00 PM 2010  

Post a Comment

<< Home